Saeculum Mirabilis/Note

Indice del libro
Albert Einstein (anni '30)

NOTEModifica

[Tutte le note e i riferimenti sono lasciati negli originali (DEENFR) ]

Il Carteggio EinsteinModifica

Albert Einstein lasciò le sue carte personali all'Università Ebraica di Gerusalemme, dove sono conservate nell'Albert Einstein Archive (AEA). Nei riferimenti ogni elemento è citato con la data, numero di fascicolo AEA, numero di documento. Molti manoscritti originali furono dattiloscritti dalla segretaria di Einstein, Helen Dukas, e una quantità considerevole venne tradotta in (EN) . Quando in (DE) – ed in alcuni casi in (FR) – gli originali sono rimasti intradotti e così li ho lasciati nel mio studio (se invece ho necessitato di fornirne una traduzione per motivi interpretativi, allora lo specifico con "tradotto da Monozigote").

IntroduzioneModifica

  1. Lo scienziato e romanziere britannico C. P. Snow, che conosceva Einstein, tentò di rispondere alla domanda sul perché solo Einstein, piuttosto che, diciamo, Rutherford o Bohr, fosse "nella classe Bradman" e concluse che se Einstein non fosse esistito la fisica del ventesimo secolo sarebbe stata diversa: "this one could say of no one else, not even Rutherford or Bohr". Snow suggerì inoltre che a Rutherford mancasse "Einsteinʼs moral independence or resource" e, sebbene Bohr poteva possedere queste qualità, non poteva proiettarle. C. P. Snow, Variety of Men: Statesmen, Scientists and Writers (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1969), 79, 90.
  2. Si veda Abraham Pais, ʻSubtle is the Lordʼ: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982), 7–8.
  3. Einstein to Sigmund Freud, 10 May 1931, Albert Einstein Archive, Hebrew University, Gerusalemme (d'ora in poi AEA), 32–559; rist. in Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions (New York: Crown Publishers, 1954), 104–5, e anche, ma con altra traduzione, in David E. Rowe e Robert Schulmann (eds), Einstein on Politics: His Private Thoughts and Public Stands on Nationalism, Zionism, War, Peace, and the Bomb (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), 421–2. Questa lettera, descritta nella sua forma pubblicata come scritta nel tardo 1931 o primi 1932, è stata ora datata definitivamente. Per una discussione molto interessante su Einstein e Freud, sia sulla loro relazione personale che sugli elementi paralleli del loro status iconico nel ventesimo secolo, si veda John Forrester, ʻA Tale of Two Icons: “The Jews all over the World Boast of My Name, Pairing me with Einstein” (Freud, 1926)ʼ, Psychoanalysis and History, 7/2 (2005), 205–26. Un avvincente studio completo dei contributi di Einstein e Freud alle rivoluzioni intellettuali del ventesimo secolo sta in Richard Panek, The Invisible Century: Einstein, Freud, and the Search for Hidden Universes (Londra: Penguin Books, 2004).
  4. Verranno forniti riferimenti completi a questa letteratura secondaria man mano che i temi verranno discussi nel corso del libro. Di seguito vengono citate alcune delle opere principali. Ronald W. Clark, Einstein: His Life and Times (Londra: Hodder and Stoughton, 1971); Albrecht Főlsing, Albert Einstein (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1998); Walter Isaacson, Einstein: His Life and Universe (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2008), a cui ho fatto spesso riferimento per le informazioni generali. Tra le biografie, Pais, ʻSubtle is the Lordʼ: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein, ha per me un posto speciale: Principalmente interessato alla scienza, contiene anche alcune importanti intuizioni sul carattere di Einstein e sugli atteggiamenti politici basati sull'amicizia dell'autore con Einstein. Si vedano specialmente i capitoli 1, 3, e 27. Abbastanza recente è la breve biografia di Steven Gimbel, Einstein: His Space and Times (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015). Cfr. anche Peter L. Galison, Gerald Holton, e Silvan S. Schweber (eds), Einstein for the Twenty-First Century: His Legacy in Science, Art, and Modern Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008); Alexander Vucinich, Einstein and Soviet Ideology (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001); Fred Jerome, The Einstein File: J. Edgar Hooverʼs War against the Worldʼs Most Famous Scientist (New York: St Martinʼs Press, 2002); Max Jammer, Einstein and Religion (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999); Fritz Stern, Einsteinʼs German World (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2001); Zeʼev Rosenkranz, Einstein before Israel: Zionist Icon or Iconoclast? (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011); Jamie Sayen, Einstein in America: The Scientistʼs Conscience in the Age of Hitler and Hiroshima (New York: Crown Publishers, 1985).
  5. Otto Nathan e Heinz Norden (eds), Einstein on Peace (1960; New York: Schocken, 1968). Rowe e Schulmann (eds), Einstein on Politics, citazione a p. xxi.
  6. Tuttavia, l'introduzione storica a Rowe e Schulmann (eds), Einstein on Politics, rappresenta fino ad oggi il resoconto più completo delle opinioni politiche di Einstein nel loro insieme ed è una lettura essenziale.
  7. Non pretendo che questi pochi paragrafi possano rappresentare una storia completa del liberalismo; sono solo riferimenti alle principali associazioni del termine. Una storia recente e completa del liberalismo, in effetti il primo resoconto storico completo in inglese da molti anni, è quello di Edmund Fawcett, Liberalism: The Life of an Idea (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014), specialmente la Parte II sul periodo 1880–1945. Per la citazione da Friedrich Hayek, cfr. The Road to Serfdom (Londra: George Routledge and Sons, 1944), 10, e , da Karl Mannheim, Diagnosis of our Time: Wartime Essays of a Sociologist (Londra: Kegan Paul, 1943), 5.
  8. David Armitage, ʻThe “International Turn” in Intellectual Historyʼ, Global Journal, 15, 22 gennaio 2013, 22–5. Una versione più completa si trova in Darrin M. McMahon e Samuel Moyn (eds), Rethinking Modern European Intellectual History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 232–52.

Capitolo 1Modifica

  1. Susan Neiman, ʻSubversive Einsteinʼ, in Galison, Holton, and Schweber (eds), Einstein for the Twenty-First Century, 62.
  2. Cfr. Nathan & Norden (eds), Einstein on Peace.
  3. Jagdish Mehra, ʻEinsteinʼs Philosophy of Lifeʼ, typescript, n.d., AEA 60-492.
  4. Einstein to Mehra, 2 July 1952, AEA 60-491.
  5. Einstein to Michele Besso, 21 April 1946, AEA 7-381.
  6. Gimbel, Einstein, 10.
  7. Maja Winteler-Einstein, ʻAlbert Einstein—Beitrag fűr sein Lebensbild,ʼ in Collected Papers of Albert Einstein (hereafter CPAE), i, p. lxiii.
  8. See Winteler-Einstein, ʻAlbert Einsteinʼ, in CPAE i, pp. lxiii–lxiv.
  9. CPAE i. 12, doc. 7, editorial introduction.
  10. CPAE i. 239 n. 1, editorial note on Swiss citizenship.
  11. Főlsing, Albert Einstein, 67.
  12. Cfr. Peter L. Galison, ʻThe Assassin of Relativityʼ, in Galison, Holton, and Schweber (eds), Einstein for the Twenty-First Century, 187.
  13. Cfr. Galison, ʻThe Assassin of Relativityʼ, 185–204.
  14. Quoted in Galison, ʻThe Assassin of Relativityʼ, 189.
  15. One example is the compilation of Einsteinʼs speeches and writings, The World As I See It (New York: Philosophical Library, 1949; repr. New York: Citadel Press, 1995).
  16. Dewey to Einstein, Western Union Telegram, 6 December 1937, AEA 52‐810.
  17. Einstein to Dewey, 7 December 1937, AEA 75-468 (translation by RC).
  18. Stefan Collini in Absent Minds: Intellectuals in Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), Introduction & Part I.
  19. R. R. Palmer, The Age of the Democratic Revolution (2 vols; Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959, 1964).
  20. Paul Kennedy in The Parliament of Man (New York: Vintage Books, 2007), cap. 1.
  21. Margaret Macmillan, Peacemakers: Six Months that Changed the World (London: John Murray, 2003).
  22. Daniel Gorman, The Emergence of International Society in the 1920s (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), 2.
  23. Cfr. David James Fisher, Romain Rolland and the Politics of Intellectual Engagement (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1988), 61.
  24. Fisher, Romain Rolland, ch. 4.
  25. H. G. Wells, The Open Conspiracy and Other Writings (London: Waterlow and Sons, 1933), 14–15.
  26. Bertrand Russell, The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell, ii. 1914–1944 (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1968), 180.
  27. George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950), John Dewey (1859–1952), Romain Rolland (1866–1944), H. G. Wells (1866–1946), Gandhi (1869–1948), Bertrand Russell (1872–1970), Thomas Mann (1875–1955), Albert Schweitzer (1875–1965), and Einstein himself (1879–1955).
  28. Bertrand Russell, in Albert Einstein et al, Living Philosophies: A Series of Intimate Credos (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1931), 13–14; John Dewey, ibid. , p. 34. Cfr. anche John Dewey, Reconstruction in Philosophy (New York: Henry Holt, 1920).
  29. Albert Schweitzer, The Decay and Restoration of Civilization, pt I di The Philosophy of Civilization, trans. C. T. Campion (1923; London: A & C Black, 1932), 3. Cfr. anche Schweitzer, Civilization and Ethics, pt II di The Philosophy of Civilization (1923; 3rd edn; London: A & C Black, 1946), capp. XXI e XXII. Cfr. anche James Brabazon, Schweitzer: A Biography (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1975), chs 15–16.
  30. Russell, Autobiography, ii. 38.
  31. Fisher, Romain Rolland, 200.
  32. Michael Holroyd, Bernard Shaw, ii. 1898–1918: The Pursuit of Power (London: Chatto and Windus, 1989), 43.
  33. Russell, Autobiography, ii. 102, 107; the retrospective essay is ʻWhy I am not a Communistʼ in Russell, Portraits from Memory and Other Essays (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1956), 212.
  34. Michael Holroyd, Bernard Shaw, iii. 1918–1950: The Lure of Fantasy (London: Chatto and Windus, 1991), 254.
  35. Su Russell, cfr. Bolshevism, Theory and Practice (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1920) e Russell, Autobiography, ii, cap. 2. Su Shaw, cfr. Holroyd, Bernard Shaw, iii, ch. 4, pt (1); su Rolland, cfr. Fisher, Romain Rolland, 53–6, 244–50; su Wells, cfr. Russia in the Shadows and H. G. Wells, Experiment in Autobiography: Discoveries and Conclusions of a Very Ordinary Brain (since 1866) (2 vols; London: Victor Gollancz, 1934); on Dewey, see Impressions of Soviet Russia and the Revolutionary World: Mexico—China—Turkey (New York: New Republic, 1929) and Richard Crockatt, ʻJohn Dewey and Modern Revolutionsʼ, REAL: Yearbook of Research in English and American Literature, 7 (1990), 208–13.
  36. Einstein to Coudenhove-Kalergi, 6 July 1932 in Nathan and Norden (eds), Einstein on Peace, 204.
  37. Einstein to Gandhi, n.d., AEA 32-588; Gandhi to Einstein, 18 October 1931, AEA 32-587.
  38. Contribution to a seventieth-birthday volume for Gandhi, AEA 32-599.1.
  39. Statement on Schweitzer for a new edition of Mein Weltbild (not used) dated 1953, AEA 33-223.
  40. Einstein, Ideas and Opinions, 53; Schweitzer, The Decay and Restoration of Civilization, p. vi.
  41. Brabazon, Albert Schweitzer, 381.
  42. Schweitzer to Einstein, 30 April 1948, AEA 33-218; Einstein to Schweitzer, 25 September 1948, AEA 33-220. Einstein claimed that he had met Schweitzer twice, but there is evidence for only one meeting.
  43. The text of Schweitzerʼs lecture is online at the Nobel Prize website.
  44. Einstein to Russell, 4 March 1955, AEA 33-205. Schweitzer was initially reluctant to make a public statement about the bomb, but in 1954 a letter by Schweitzer was published by the London Daily Herald urging scientists to speak out against the bomb. Cfr. Brabazon, Albert Schweitzer, 419.
  45. George Marshall & David Poling, Schweitzer: A Biography (New York: Pillar Books, 1975), 240–2; Brabazon, Albert Schweitzer, 429–35.
  46. Philipp Frank, Einstein, his Life and Times (1947; Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2002), 158.
  47. Einstein to Rolland, 22 March 1915, in CPAE viii. 103, pt A, doc. 65.
  48. Russell, Autobiography, ii. 38.
  49. In 1921, while on a tour of Japan, Russell was asked to recommend another lecturer for the following year and named Einstein and Lenin as the most significant minds in the world. Einstein did indeed go to Japan the following year. Lenin, Einsteinʼs biographer notes, was ʻotherwise engagedʼ (Főlsing, Albert Einstein, 524–5).
  50. Vorwort zu Russell, Politische Ideale, in AEA 33-152; statement about Russellʼs History of Western Philosophy, AEA 33-186.
  51. Cfr. Einstein to Russell, October 1931, AEA 33-156; Russell to Einstein, 7 January 1935, AEA 33-160; Einstein to Russell, March 14, 1940, AEA 33-166, published in abbreviated form in Nathan and Norden (eds), Einstein on Peace, 310.
  52. Einstein to Mann, 29 April 1933, AEA 32-663; Einsteinʼs statement on presentation of the Einstein Medal to Mann, 28 January 1939, AEA 32-673; Einsteinʼs tribute to Mann, 9 June 1945, AEA 32-686; Mann obituary notice of Einstein, April 1955, AEA 32-706.
  53. Thomas Mann, ʻWarum ich nicht nach Deutschland zurűckgeheʼ, Aufbau, 39 (28 September 1945), in AEA 32-691.
  54. For Wellsʼs anticipation of Einstein and a well-grounded discussion of the relations between science and science fiction, see R. J. Lambourne, M. J. Shallis, and M. Shortland, Close Encounters?: Science and Science Fiction (Bristol: Adam Hilger, 1990), especially 56. Among the many conspiracy theories, which go far beyond the question of Wells and Einstein, see Christopher Jon Bjerknes, Albert Einstein: Unmaking the Myth, i. The Special Theory of Relativity, 2000–2001.
  55. H. G. Wells with H Wickam Steed, Viscount Grey, Gilbert Murray, Lionel Curtis, J. A. Spender, William Archer (secretary), A. E. Zimmern, Viscount Bryce, The Idea of a League of Nations (Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1919).
  56. Einstein to Wells, 20 April 1932, AEA34-294.
  57. H. G. Wells, in Einstein et al., Living Philosophies, 91.
  58. Quoted in John S. Partington, Building Cosmopolis: The Political Thought of H. G. Wells (London: Ashgate, 2003), 106–7.
  59. Einstein address at a conference on ʻEducators and World Peaceʼ, 23 November 1934, in Nathan and Norden (eds), Einstein on Peace, 253.
  60. Henderson, ʻHenderson Recalls Shawʼ, Einstein Association, Durham Morning Herald, 21 August 1955, in AEA 33-257.
  61. Einstein to Hedwig Fischer, n.d., 1928, AEA 33-246; Einstein to Besso, 5 January 1929, AEA 33-247.
  62. George Bernard Shaw, Savoy Hotel Fund-Raising Dinner, 28 October 1930, in Albert Einstein: Historical Recordings 1930–1947, British Library Sound Archive, 2005.
  63. Einstein to Shaw, 20 September 1950, AEA 33-256.
  64. Cfr. Einstein to Michele Besso, 21 July 1916, ʻLieber Onkel Toby…ʼ, in Albert Einstein–Michele Besso, Correspondance 1903–1955 (in German with French translation), ed. Pierre Speziali (Paris: Hermann, 1972), 75.
  65. Cfr. Einstein to Stone, 12 May 1952, AEA 61-489, and Stoneʼs reply, 16 May 1952, AEA 61-490.
  66. In Nathan and Norden (eds), Einstein on Peace, 3–4.
  67. ʻManifesto to the Europeansʼ, mid-October 1914, in CPAE vi. 69, 70, doc. 8 (translation by RC).
  68. See Nathan and Norden (eds), Einstein on Peace, 8.
  69. Theo F. Lentz to Einstein, 15 August 1949, AEA 57-626.
  70. Einstein to Lentz, 20 August 1949, AEA 57-627.
  71. Silvan S. Schweber, ʻEinstein and Nuclear Weaponsʼ, in Galison, Holton, and Schweber (eds), Einstein for the Twenty-First Century, 95–6.
  72. Einstein to Leo Huberman, 19 May 1952, AEA 61-492.
  73. On Einsteinʼs visit to America in 1921, see Marshall Missner, ʻWhy Einstein Became Famous in Americaʼ, Social Studies of Science, 15 (1985), 267–91. Cfr. anche Jamie Sayen, Einstein in America: The Scientistʼs Conscience in the Age of Hitler and Hiroshima (New York: Crown Publishers, 1985).
  74. Rosenkranz, Einstein before Israel, cap. 3.
  75. Einsteinʼs critical comments about America were first published in the Niewe Rotterdamsche Courant, 4 July 1921, and reported at length in the New York Times. A full English translation is to be found in CPAE vii. 623–5, app. D; the quoted section is on p. 624. A partial German translation appeared in the Berlin Tageblatt, 7 July 1921, repr. in English translation in CPAE vii. 626–7, app. D. Einsteinʼs clarification and partial retraction appeared in the Vossische Zeitung, 10 July 1921, repr. in English translation in CPAE vii. 628–30, app. E.
  76. In July 1922 Gilbert Murray, a British member of the committee, wrote to Einstein that ʻthe Committee, as I understand it, is not intended to represent national points of view. It consists of individuals chosen for their own qualifications from various nationsʼ (Murray to Einstein, 17 July 1922, in CPAE xiii. 418–19, doc. 296).
  77. Einstein to Pierre Comert, between 12 and 19 July 1922, in CPAE xiii. 405, doc. 281.
  78. Bertrand Russell, The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell, iii. 1944–1967 (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1969), 99.
  79. Einstein to Sigmund Freud, 10 May 1931, AEA 32-559. Einsteinʼs exchange of views with Freud about war is discussed in Chapter 2 and again, in a different light, in Chapter 3.
  80. ʻAntworten auf Fragen z. 60 Geburtstageʼ, 14 March 1939, AEA 28-473.
  81. Albert Einstein, ʻA Message to Intellectualsʼ, in Out of my Later Years (New York: Philosophical Library, 1950), 152.
  82. Einstein to O. John Rogge, 19 June 1951, AEA 61-133.
  83. The letter to Roosevelt, dated 2 August 1939, is available in Rowe and Schulmann (eds), Einstein on Politics, 359–61. The original typescript is in AEA 33-088. This letter and the consequences that flowed from it are discussed in Chapter 5.

Capitolo 2Modifica

  1. There is a curious background to the award of the Nobel Prize to Einstein. He had been nominated a number of times since 1910 and pressure was rising to recognize his obvious achievement. While he was awarded the prize for 1921, it was not announced until 1922 because of disagreements among influential members of the Nobel Committee about whetherthe theory of relativity really satisfied Nobelʼs criteria, which included the requirement that the prize be given for a ʻdiscovery or inventionʼ. Despite the experimental proof of the General Theory in 1919, some committee members refused to accept its validity. It was decided initially not to award the prize for 1921, but a change of mind ensued when it was suggested that Einstein be awarded the prize for the ʻdiscoveryʼ of the law of the photoelectric e􀁸ect rather than for the theory of relativity. So Einstein received the 1921 prize. The following year it was awarded to Niels Bohr. Da Főlsing, Albert Einstein, 535–42.
  2. Frank, Einstein, p. xv.
  3. Albert Einstein, Űber die spezielle und allgemeine Relativitätstheorie (Braunschweig: Verlag Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 1916; (EN) in 1920 da Methuen, Londra & Henry Holt a New York).
  4. Katy Price, Loving Faster than Light: Romance and Readers in Einsteinʼs Universe (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012), 8.
  5. Quoted in Clark, Einstein, 267. Katy Price notes ʻmoralsʼ as an alternative to ʻmoraleʼ in Loving Faster than Light, 35.
  6. A most intriguing effort is in Max Jammer, Einstein and Religion (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999), ch. 3. Jammer notes in introducing the topic that ʻthe idea of drawing theological consequences from physics has a long historyʼ (p. 157).
  7. In the English-speaking world, the most famous critic was Herbert Butterfield in The Whig Interpretation of History (London: G. Bell, 1931).
  8. Einstein to Lentz, 20 August 1949, AEA 57-627.
  9. Interview with Hannah Loewy in the Public Broadcasting System programme ʻAlbert Einstein: How I See the Worldʼ.
  10. Quoted in Gerald Holton, ʻEinstein and the Shaping of our Imaginationʼ, in Gerald Holton and Yehuda Elkana (eds), Albert Einstein, Historical and Cultural Perspectives: The Centennial Symposium in Jerusalem (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982), p. xii.
  11. Albert Einstein, ʻThe World As I See Itʼ, in Ideas and Opinions, 8. This article has a complicated publishing history. The original was written in German in 1929/30, a handwritten copy of which is in the Albert Einstein Archive in file 29-028. The first English version appeared in the magazine Forum and Century (October 1930), 193–4, under the title ʻWhat I Believeʼ, and was reprinted in Einstein et al., Living Philosophies, 3–7. This English version, which is the text reprinted by Rowe and Schulmann (eds) in their Einstein on Politics, 226–30, differed in certain respects from the German original, notably in the paragraphing and the placing of certain sentences. The published German version in the collection of Einsteinʼs writings called Mein Weltbild (1934) follows the original handwritten text, as does the later English translation in Ideas and Opinions (1954). Throughout this book I use the text as published in Ideas and Opinions, on the grounds that it reflects most closely Einsteinʼs original German draft. I must thank Barbara Wolff of the Albert Einstein Archive and Professor Robert Schulmann for alerting me to important details regarding this question.
  12. Frederic Golden, ʻAlbert Einstein: Person of the Centuryʼ, Time Magazine, 31 December 1999, 34.
  13. A good example is Yehuda Elkana, ʻThe Myth of Simplicityʼ, in Holton and Elkana (eds), Albert Einstein, 221–4.
  14. Einstein, ʻPrinciples of Researchʼ, in Ideas and Opinions, 226.
  15. See the interesting discussion of ʻEinstein and Languageʼ by Roman Jakobson in Holton and Elkana (eds), Albert Einstein,142.
  16. Ernst G. Straus, ʻReminiscencesʼ, in Holton and Elkana (eds), Albert Einstein, 418.
  17. Cfr. Főlsing, Albert Einstein, 29–35.
  18. Albert Einstein, ʻOn the Theory of Relativityʼ, in Ideas and Opinions, 246.
  19. Quoted in Rowe and Schulmann (eds), Einstein on Politics, 337.
  20. Rowe and Schulmann (eds), Einstein on Politics, 338.
  21. Einstein to A. J. Muste, 31 October 1949, AEA 58-574.
  22. Einsteinʼs doggedness has been vindicated in the eyes of many physicists who now see Einsteinʼs questioning of quantum mechanics as insightful and prescient. A gripping account of the Einstein–Bohr debate is contained in Manjit Kumar, Quantum: Einstein, Bohr and the Great Debate about the Nature of Reality (2008; London: Icon Books, 2014). The letter is Einstein to Max Born, 4 December 1926, in The Born–Einstein Letters, 1916–1955: Friendship, Politics and Physics in Uncertain Times (1971; Houndmills: Macmillan, 2005), 88.
  23. Kahol to Einstein, 13 December 1949, AEA 32-611.
  24. Einstein to Kahol, 22 December 1949, AEA 32-612.
  25. Kahol to Einstein, 1 January 1950, AEA 32-613; and 3 March 1950, AEA 32-614.
  26. Nathan and Norden (eds), Einstein on Peace, 188–90; Freudʼs reply is on pp. 188–202. The typescript of Einsteinʼs letter to Freud is in AEA 32-543 (six pages). Freudʼs reply, headed ʻWien [Vienna] in September 1932ʼ, is in AEA 32-548 (seventeen pages). Quotations are from the English version in Nathan and Norden. For an important but rather different take on Why War? that emphasizes a personal element in the exchange, see Forrester, ʻA Tale of Two Icons,ʼ, 217–20, especially 219.
  27. Nathan and Norden (eds), Einstein on Peace, 196, 198, 200–1, 202.
  28. Yaron Ezrahi, ʻEinsteinʼs Unintended Legacy: The Critique of Common-Sense Realism and Post-Modern Politicsʼ, in Galison, Holton, and Schweber (eds), Einstein for the Twenty-First Century, 50.
  29. Ezrahi, ʻEinsteinʼs Unintended Legacyʼ, 52. Ezrahi links these observations with a larger thesis about the erosion of transparency in democratic communities, a development that he says is due not only to the advances of the physical sciences but also to the complex effects of new communications media.
  30. Lincoln Barnett, The Universe and Dr Einstein, with a foreword by Albert Einstein (1948; New York: Signet Books, 1964), 58.
  31. Einstein, Ideas and Opinions, 261.
  32. Barnett, The Universe and Dr Einstein, 23, 18.
  33. Walter Lippmann to Newton D. Baker, 15 May 1929, in Lipmann, Public Philosopher: Selected Letters of Walter Lippmann, ed. John Morton Blum (New York: Ticknor and Fields, 1985), 241.
  34. Susan Neiman, ʻSubversive Einsteinʼ, 70.
  35. Einstein, ʻThe Laws of Science and the Laws of Ethicsʼ, in Out of my Later Years, 114.
  36. Einstein, ʻThe Laws of Science and the Laws of Ethicsʼ, in Out of my Later Years, 115.
  37. Einstein, ʻThe Common Language of Scienceʼ, in Out of my Later Years, 113.
  38. Einstein, ʻThe Laws of Science and the Laws of Ethicsʼ, in Out of my Later Years, 115.
  39. Stern, Einsteinʼs German World, 120. See also Thomas Levenson, Einstein in Berlin (New York: Bantam Books, 2004), 121–4.
  40. Főlsing, Albert Einstein, 347–8.
  41. Főlsing, Albert Einstein, 402, 413. It may be that in the scientific mind there is a disjunction between appreciation of the beauty of a solution to a complex problem—an appreciation of ʻscience for scienceʼs sakeʼ—and any possible practical uses to which an innovation might be put. It is reported that, when Edward Teller described the principle of the ʻsuperʼ or H-bomb to J. Robert Oppenheimer, Oppenheimer (who became a firm opponent of its production) said ʻitʼs technically sweetʼ.
  42. Einstein, ʻThe World As I See Itʼ, in Ideas and Opinions, 9.
  43. See, e.g., Főlsing, Albert Einstein, 394–5; and Isaacson, Einstein, 185–6.
  44. On Einsteinʼs affairs, see Főlsing, Albert Einstein, 548, 616–17. In 2006 the Albert Einstein Archive at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, released over 1,000 private letters showing that Einstein had had affairs with six women after his marriage to Elsa.
  45. Einstein to Born, 12 April 1949, in The Born–Einstein Letters, 182.
  46. Einstein, ʻThe World As I See Itʼ, in Ideas and Opinions, 11; the German text is in Einstein, Mein Weltbild, ed. Carl Seelig (Amsterdam, 1934; enlarged edn, Zurich, 1953; repr. Berlin: Ullstein, 2005), 12.
  47. Einstein, Ideas and Opinions, 12.
  48. Einstein, ʻPrinciples of Researchʼ, in Ideas and Opinions, 225.
  49. Einstein, ʻAutobiographical Notesʼ, in Paul Arthur Schilpp (ed.), Albert Einstein: Philosopher–Scientist (The Library of Living Philosophers; 2nd edn; New York: Tudor Publishing Company, 1951), 5.
  50. Einstein, ʻAutobiographical Notesʼ, 17. Einstein was aware that in describing the process of his embrace of science and reason over religion he might be imposing an artificial simplicity on his past, but he concluded (p. 7) that, given the need for brevity, it was as close to the truth as he could get.
  51. Einstein, ʻReligion and Scienceʼ, in Ideas and Opinions, 39.
  52. Einstein, ʻThe Religious Spirit of Scienceʼ, in Ideas and Opinions, 40.
  53. Einstein, ʻThe World As I See Itʼ, in Ideas and Opinions, 11.
  54. In 2011 a Tennessee legislator invoked Einstein (employing an evidently apocryphal or manufactured quote) in support of a bill to require teachers to present controversial scientific ideas—including evolution, global warming, human cloning, and others—in a critical fashion. The bill was regarded by its opponents as a means devised by the religious lobby of ensuring that creationism and intelligent design would be taught as scientific theory. The statement attributed to Einstein was: ʻA little knowledge would turn your head towards atheism, while a broader knowledge would turn your head toward Christianity.ʼ
  55. Einstein, ʻScience and Religionʼ, in Ideas and Opinions, 47, 48.
  56. The reaction to this address in newspapers and private letters is described in detail in Jammer, Einstein and Religion, 92.
  57. Einstein to Erich Gutkind, 3 January 1954, AEA 59-897 (translation by RC). He also said in this letter that the Jewish religion, like all other religions, was ʻan incarnation of primitive superstitionʼ. The publication of this letter was generally held to resolve the question of whether Einstein was a believer in God, but, as the Tennessee example above shows, this story continues to run and run.
  58. Einstein to Guy Raner, 25 September 1949, AEA 58-702.
  59. Quoted in Jammer, Einstein and Religion, 49.
  60. Einstein, ʻScience and Religionʼ, in Ideas and Opinions, 44–5.
  61. Einstein, ʻReligion and Scienceʼ, in Ideas and Opinions, 39; ʻScience and Religionʼ, in Ideas and Opinions, 42.
  62. Einsteinʼs correspondence with Besso has been collected in Albert Einstein–Michele Besso, Correspondance; for Born, see The Born–Einstein Letters; Einsteinʼs exchange of letters with Heinrich Zangger has been collected in Seelenverwandte: Der Briefwechsel zwischen Albert Einstein und Heinrich Zangger, 1910–1947, ed. Robert Schumann (Zurich: Verlag Neue Zűrcher Zeitung, 2012); the correspondence with Műhsam can be followed in AEA 38-338–38-451; for accounts of Einsteinʼs memorable first meeting with Ehrenfest, see Főlsing, Albert Einstein, 294–5 and Isaacson, Einstein, 167–8. The correspondence in the Einstein Archive between Einstein and Ehrenfest is extensive. It ends in 1933 with Ehrenfestʼs suicide.
  63. For a brief account of Einsteinʼs relations with Queen Elisabeth, see Főlsing, Albert Einstein, 631–2; for the letters to David Rothman, see AEA 56-048, 56-041, 56-055, and 56-061. See also the fascinating article by Spencer Rumsey, ʻEinsteinʼs Long Island Summer of ʼ39ʼ, in Long Island Press, 1 February 2013, for a touching account of Einsteinʼs relationship with Rothman.
  64. Isaiah Berlin, ʻEinstein and Israelʼ, in Berlin, Personal Impressions, ed. Henry Hardy (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1982), 154. It should be said that this comment comes towards the end of a warm and admiring portrait of Einstein.
  65. Born, Born–Einstein Letters, 125.
  66. Einstein, ʻThe World As I See Itʼ, in Ideas and Opinions, 9.
  67. Frank, Einstein, 49.
  68. Albert Einstein, Travel Diaries, 30 November 1930, AEA 29-134.10 (translation by RC).
  69. Albert Einstein, Historic Recordings 1930–1947, British Library Sound Archive (London: British Library Board, 2005).
  70. Besides his journalism, which included articles about the solar eclipse on which the proof of the General Theory of Relativity was based, Moszkowski was the author of books on humour and the occult. He had befriended Einstein in Berlin during the war. See Főlsing, Albert Einstein, 469–71; and Isaacson, Einstein, 269–71. Moszkowskiʼs book was published in Germany under the title Einstein, Einblicke in Seine Gedankenwelt: Gemeinverständliche Betrachtungen űber die Relativitätstheorie und ein neues Weltsystem, entwickelt aus Gespräche mit Einstein (Berlin: Fontane, 1920), and in English as Einstein, the Searcher: His Work Explained from Dialogues with Einstein (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1921).
  71. Hedwig Born to Einstein, 7 October 1920, and Max Born to Einstein, 13 October 1920, in Born, The Born–Einstein Letters, 37, 39.
  72. Born, The Born–Einstein Letters, 41. See also Főlsing, Albert Einstein, 468–71, and Isaacson, Einstein, 269–71.
  73. Cfr. Born, The Born–Einstein Letters, 41.

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  Per approfondire, vedi Serie delle interpretazioni, Serie dei sentimenti, Serie letteratura moderna e Serie misticismo ebraico.