Differenze tra le versioni di "Identità e letteratura nell'ebraismo del XX secolo/Un nuovo inizio: la letteratura israeliana"

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Questa difficoltà è sopra illustrata da una poesia che si distingue per la sua brevità, semplicità di linguaggio e universalità del tema. Se, anche nell'ambito di tali confini, il margine di differenza è così vasto, ci si può immaginare il divario quando la poesia usa un linguaggio più denso, e allude ad una situazione più localizzata o ad una connotazione storica più complessa. Amichai è un poeta relativamente facile da tradurre, specie in italiano che nella costruzione si avvicina maggiormante all'ebraico, ma anche quando compone versi in un linguaggio apparentemente (ma solo superficialmente) vicino ad un vernacolo gergale, è senza dubbio trasformato in traduzione. A giudicare dalla sua bibliografia integrale, Amichai è tradotto e pubblicato prima di tutto in lingua inglese, poi seguono il francese e lo spagnolo; in italiano le pubblicazioni sono relativamente scarse, ma troviamo traduzioni anche in [[w:lingua nepalese|lingua nepalese]]. L'inglese ha comunque la tendenza ad esprimersi a basso regime, serratamente, ma le sottili sfumature di enfasi, tono, cadenza, originalità devono apparire, altrimenti si perde il senso dell'originale ebraico. Secondo [[w:Walter benjamin|Walter Benjamin]], la lingua d'arrivo deve essere in qualche modo modificata nel corso di una traduzione ben riuscita, e cambiata del tutto in una traduzione storica. La lingua usata da Amichai sembra facile in traduzione, ma l'impressione è ingannevole.<ref name="Amichai"/><ref name="Ital">Per una visione critica e bibliografica generale in italiano, cfr. [http://testi-italiani.it/yehuda_amichai#Poetry "Yehuda Amichai"], in ''Testi Italiani''.</ref>
<!--- da sistemare ed inserire
<ref name="Amen">{{en}}[http://www.enotes.com/topics/amen Analisi poetica della raccolta di poesie ''Amen''].</ref>
 
''Amen'' è una raccolta di poesie tradotte in inglese, curata dal poeta britannico [[w:Ted Highes|Ted Hughes]] con la collaborazione dell'autore, ed è subito successiva alla guerra del 1973: si apre con "'''Sette lamenti per i caduti'''", ed una versione stralciata si può leggere qui appresso. La forza della poesia è nella sua abilità di riprodurre l'impronta diretta di un'esperienza privata (ma condivisa) e trasmetterla in un linguaggio semplice e fattivo, elevato da immagini paradossali. Il punto della poesia usualmente è l'ironia della vita vissuta, il sogno dorato contrastato dalla conclusione deludente e necessaria. "Potatoes (patate)" sono "mashed (schiacciate)" dal bambino in un "purè dorato" (Lamento nr. 2) — forte romanticismo in questi sogni infantili. Ma poi arriva la morte. La storia, pubblica e personale, forma il materiale di Amichai e ciò significa per lui il ricordo delle guerre. La funzione del poeta è di sigillare la memoria, sebbene chi la registra possa essere, con lo scorrere del tempo, più anonimo della materia registrata. Come avverte il titolo originale ebraico, forse "dietro tutto questo si nasconde una grande felicità". Ma solo forse...<ref name="Amen">{{en}}[http://www.enotes.com/topics/amen Analisi poetica della raccolta di poesie ''Amen''].</ref>
:'''1'''
Mr. Beringer, whose son<br/>
fell at the Canal that strangers dug<br/>
so ships could cross the desert,<br/>
crosses my path at Jaffa Gate.<br/>
 
{{q|......<ref>Mentre la traduzione dall'ebraico all'inglese è quella ufficiale, pubblicata nel 1977, quella in italiano è purtroppo, con le debite scuse, estemporanea eseguita da [[Utente:Monozigote|Monozigote]].</ref>|''Amen'', "Seven Laments for the Fallen" <ref>Amichai usa spesso i giochi di parola: usando parole ebraiche di suono simile, dà significati contorti sottili (e a volte non così sottili). "Seven Laments (Sette Lamenti)" è stato tradotto (e pubblicato) in inglese da Stephen Mitchell e Chana Bloch, quest'ultima che ha trascorso lunghi periodi con Amichai in Israele, elaborando le traduzioni inglesi. Tutta la raccolta ''Amen'' fu a suo tempo curata dal poeta [[w:Ted Hughes|Ted Hughes]], ''[[w:Poeta Laureato|Poet Laureate]]'' in Inghilterra dal 1984 fino alla sua morte nel 1998 — cfr. [http://wonderingminstrels.blogspot.co.uk/2002/10/seven-laments-for-war-dead-yehuda.html Traduzione ufficiale in inglese dei "Sette Lamenti"], dalla raccolta ''Amen''.</ref>|
He has grown very thin, has lost
'''1'''<br/>
the weight of his son.
''Mr. Beringer, whose son<br/>
That's why he floats so lightly in the alleys
''fell at the Canal that strangers dug<br/>
and gets caught in my heart like little twigs
''so ships could cross the desert,<br/>
that drift away.
''crosses my path at Jaffa Gate.''<br/>
 
''He has grown very thin, has lost<br/>
2
''the weight of his son.<br/>
As a child he would mash his potatoes
''That's why he floats so lightly in the alleys<br/>
to a golden mush.
''and gets caught in my heart like little twigs<br/>
And then you die.
''that drift away''.<br/>
 
'''2'''<br/>
A living child must be cleaned
''As a child he would mash his potatoes<br/>
when he comes home from playing.
''to a golden mush.<br/>
But for a dead man
''And then you die.''<br/>
earth and sand are clear water, in which
his body goes on being bathed and purified
forever.
 
''A living child must be cleaned<br/>
:'''3'''
''when he comes home from playing.<br/>
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
''But for a dead man<br/>
across there. On the enemy's side. A good landmark
''earth and sand are clear water, in which<br/>
for gunners of the future.
''his body goes on being bathed and purified<br/>
''forever.''<br/>
 
'''3'''<br/>
Or the war monument in London
''The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier<br/>
at Hyde Park Corner, decorated
''across there. On the enemy's side. A good landmark<br/>
like a magnificent cake: yet another soldier
''for gunners of the future.''<br/>
lifting head and rifle,
another cannon, another eagle, another
stone angel.
 
''Or the war monument in London<br/>
And the whipped cream of a huge marble flag
''at Hyde Park Corner, decorated<br/>
poured over it all
''like a magnificent cake: yet another soldier<br/>
with an expert hand.
''lifting head and rifle,<br/>
''another cannon, another eagle, another<br/>
''stone angel.''<br/>
 
''And the whipped cream of a huge marble flag<br/>
But the candied, much-too-red cherries
''poured over it all<br/>
were already gobbled up
''with an expert hand.''<br/>
by the glutton of hearts. Amen.
 
''But the candied, much-too-red cherries<br/>
:'''4'''
''were already gobbled up<br/>
I came upon an old zoology textbook,
''by the glutton of hearts. Amen.''<br/>
Brehm, Volume II, Birds:
in sweet phrases, an account of the life of the starling,
swallow, and thrush. Full of mistakes in antiquated
Gothic typeface, but full of love, too. "Our feathered
friends." "Migrate from us to warmer climes."
Nest, speckled egg, soft plumage, nightingale,
stork. "The harbirngers of spring." The robin,
red-breasted.
 
'''4'''<br/>
Year of publication: 1913, Germany,
''I came upon an old zoology textbook,<br/>
on the eve of the war that was to be
''Brehm, Volume II, Birds:<br/>
the eve of all my wars.
''in sweet phrases, an account of the life of the starling,<br/>
My good friend who died in my arms, in
''swallow, and thrush. Full of mistakes in antiquated<br/>
his blood,
''Gothic typeface, but full of love, too. "Our feathered<br/>
on the sands of Ashdod. 1948, June.
''friends." "Migrate from us to warmer climes."<br/>
''Nest, speckled egg, soft plumage, nightingale,<br/>
''stork. "The harbirngers of spring." The robin,<br/>
''red-breasted.''<br/>
 
''Year of publication: 1913, Germany,<br/>
Oh my-friend,
''on the eve of the war that was to be<br/>
red-breasted.
''the eve of all my wars.<br/>
''My good friend who died in my arms, in<br/>
''his blood,<br/>
''on the sands of Ashdod. 1948, June.''<br/>
 
''Oh my-friend,<br/>
:'''5'''
''red-breasted.''<br/>
Dicky was hit.
Like the water tower at Yad Mordekhai.
Hit. A hole in the belly. Everything
came flooding out.
 
'''5'''<br/>
But he has remained standing like that
''Dicky was hit.<br/>
in the landscape of my memory
like''Like the water tower at Yad Mordekhai.<br/>
''Hit. A hole in the belly. Everything<br/>
''came flooding out.''<br/>
 
''But he has remained standing like that<br/>
He fell not far from there,
''in the landscape of my memory<br/>
a little to the north, near Houlayqat.
''like the water tower at Yad Mordekhai.''<br/>
 
''He fell not far from there,<br/>
:'''6'''
''a little to the north, near Houlayqat.''<br/>
Is all of this
sorrow? I don't know.
I stood in the cemetery dressed in
the camouflage clothes of a living man: brown pants
and a shirt yellow as the sun.
 
'''6'''<br/>
Cemeteries are cheap; they don't ask for much.
''Is all of this<br/>
Even the wastebaskets are small, made for holding
''sorrow? I don't know.<br/>
tissue paper
''I stood in the cemetery dressed in<br/>
that wrapped flowers from the store.
''the camouflage clothes of a living man: brown pants<br/>
Cemeteries are a polite and disciplined thing.
''and a shirt yellow as the sun.''<br/>
"I Shall never forget you," in French
on a little ceramic plaque.
I don't know who it is that won't ever forget:
he's more anonymous than the one who died.
 
''Cemeteries are cheap; they don't ask for much.<br/>
Is all of this sorrow? I guess so.
''Even the wastebaskets are small, made for holding<br/>
"May ye find consolation in the building
''tissue paper<br/>
of the homeland." But how long
''that wrapped flowers from the store.<br/>
can you go on building the homeland
''Cemeteries are a polite and disciplined thing.<br/>
and not fall behind in the terrible
''"I Shall never forget you," in French<br/>
three-sided race
''on a little ceramic plaque.<br/>
between consolation and building and death?
''I don't know who it is that won't ever forget<br/>:
''he's more anonymous than the one who died.''<br/>
 
Yes,''Is all of this is sorrow.? ButI leaveguess so.<br/>
''"May ye find consolation in the building<br/>
a little love burining always
''of the homeland." But how long<br/>
like the small bulb in the room of a sleeping baby
''can you go on building the homeland<br/>
that gives him a bit of security and quiet love
''and not fall behind in the terrible<br/>
though he doesn't know what the light is
''three-sided race<br/>
or where it comes from.
''between consolation and building and death?''<br/>
 
''Yes, all of this is sorrow. But leave<br/>
:'''7'''
''a little love burining always<br/>
Memorial Day for the war-dead: go tack on<br/>
''like the small bulb in the griefroom of alla yoursleeping losses--baby<br/>
''that gives him a bit of security and quiet love<br/>
including a woman who left you--<br/>
to''though thehe griefdoesn't ofknow losingwhat them;the golight mixis<br/>
one''or sorrowwhere withit another,comes like history,from.''<br/>
that in its economical way<br/>
heaps pain and feast and sacrifice<br/>
onto a single day for easy reference.<br/>
 
'''7'''<br/>
Oh sweet world, soaked like bread<br/>
in''Memorial sweet milkDay for the terriblewar-dead: go tack on<br/>
toothless''the God.grief "Behindof all this,your losses--<br/>
''including a woman who left you--<br/>
some great happiness is hiding." No use<br/>
''to the grief of losing them; go mix<br/>
crying inside and screaming outside.<br/>
''one sorrow with another, like history,<br/>
Behind all this, some great happiness may<br/>
''that in its economical way<br/>
be hiding.<br/>
''heaps pain and feast and sacrifice<br/>
''onto a single day for easy reference.''<br/>
 
Memorial''Oh day.sweet Bitter saltworld, dressedsoaked uplike asbread<br/>
a''in littlesweet girlmilk withfor flowers.the terrible<br/>
''toothless God. "Behind all this,<br/>
Ropes are strung out the whole length of the route<br/>
''some great happiness is hiding." No use<br/>
for a joing parade: the living and the dead together<br/>.
''crying inside and screaming outside.<br/>
Children move with the footsteps of someone else's grief<br/>
''Behind all this, some great happiness may<br/>
as if picking their way through broken glass.<br/>
''be hiding.''<br/>
 
''Memorial day. Bitter salt, dressed up as<br/>
The flautist's mouth will stay pursed for many days.<br/>
''a little girl with flowers.<br/>
A dead soldier swims among the small heads<br/>
with''Ropes are strung out the swimmingwhole motionslength of the dead,route<br/>
with''for a joing parade: the ancientliving errorand the dead havetogether<br/>.
about''Children move with the placefootsteps of thesomeone livingelse's water.grief<br/>
''as if picking their way through broken glass.''<br/>
 
A''The flagflautist's losesmouth contactwill withstay realitypursed andfor fliesmany awaydays.<br/>
''A dead soldier swims among the small heads<br/>
A store window decked out with beautiful dresses for women<br/>
in''with bluethe andswimming white.motions Andof everythingthe dead,<br/>
''with the ancient error the dead have<br/>
in three languages: Hebrew, Arabic and Death.<br/>
''about the place of the living water.''<br/>
 
''A flag loses contact with reality and flies away<br/>
''A store window decked out with beautiful dresses for women<br/>
''in blue and white. And everything<br/>
''in three languages: Hebrew, Arabic and Death.''<br/>
 
''A great royal beast has been dying all night long<br/>
''under the jasmine,<br/>
''with a fixed stare at the world.<br/>
''A man whose son died in the war<br/>
''walks up the street<br/>
''like a woman with a dead fetus inside her womb.<br/>
'"Behind all this, some great happiness is hiding."''<br/>
|lingua=en}}
 
A great royal beast has been dying all night long<br/>
under the jasmine,<br/>
with a fixed stare at the world.<br/>
A man whose son died in the war<br/>
walks up the street<br/>
like a woman with a dead fetus inside her womb.<br/>
"Behind all this, some great happiness is hiding."''<br/><ref>It is said Amichai is a difficult poet to translate because he used a lot of
clever word play -- he would use similar sounding Hebrew words to bring
subtle (and not so subtle) twists in meaning. Obviously much of this was
lost in translation. "Seven Laments..." was translated by Stephen Mitchell
(who remains my favourite translator of Rilke) and Chana Bloch (who lives
and works in Berkeley, California). Chana Bloch and I exchanged email some
time ago about the work and life of this extraordinary person. She was
fortunate enough to spend extended periods of time with Amichai in Israel,
working on translations — cfr. [http://wonderingminstrels.blogspot.co.uk/2002/10/seven-laments-for-war-dead-yehuda.html Traduzione ufficiale in inglese dei "Sette Lamenti", dalla raccolta ''Amen''.</ref>
--->
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